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Best Ways to Help You Quit Smoking

Quitting smoking is notoriously difficult. However, with patience and perseverance it can be accomplished. Everyone is different, so with that in mind we have outlined a number of different options that can be used in the hope that one of these methods will be successful.

One of the main issues that come along with quitting is the fact that the nicotine is withdrawn instantly from the system. For many people, a slow withdrawal is often better, letting the body gently wean itself off the addictive substance. With that in mind, there are a number of products that can help ease this transition. The most common of these is the nicotine patch, which many use with varying degrees of success. Some use e-cigarettes, but many ex-smokers claim that snus is the way to go.

Snus from SnusDirect is a Swedish tobacco. It is placed in small moist pouches, which are then placed under the top lip and kept there for the duration of the flavour. These little pouches release small amounts of nicotine into the blood stream through the sensitive skin behind the lip thus enabling users to still get that high without the need for unsightly and unhealthy smoking.

For those that feel they can handle it, quitting completely can be the way to go but many who attempt this route often find themselves needing something to do with their hands. Often it can be practical to chew gum, play with straws or even carry a cup of coffee around just so that the hands don’t try and sneak back to that illusive packet.

Whatever route you decide to take, the key is to stick with it. Having a positive mentality is the key to success and will help you avoid failure. Make sure to have a strong backing group as moral support – no one should go it alone.

How to Get Published in a Scientific Journal

Academic publishing is a very competitive game with many rules and a long turnover period. This is why no detail is too small or insignificant when it comes to conducting and subsequently writing about your academic explorations. Here is what you should keep in mind before, during, and after submitting your article for publication.

Conduct high-quality research

“Publish or perish” is a very real motto in the scientific community. Your research is worth close to nothing if it does not pass rigorous peer review and appear in relevant, high-impact journals. To make sure you make the cut (which can be as low as 1 per cent of all submissions for the really high-profile journals), stay on top of your discipline’s cutting edge and conform to your field’s best research practices. Always keep impeccable documentation of every step of data collection and analysis!

Pick the right journal

We all want to publish in Nature or Science (or their equivalents in other disciplines), but it is more worthwhile to get into the periodical that matches your analytical focus and methodological stance most closely. Once you home in on such a journal, study its specific style guide and stick to it religiously. Otherwise your entry will be rejected on formal grounds.

Revise and resubmit

Getting accepted from the first go is very rare, so be prepared for revision requests, both reasonable and daft ones. Respond to reviewer feedback quickly and implement the relevant changes in due course. Editors are piled high and deep in submissions, and they favour a dedicated author who communicates with them regularly and takes the review process to heart.

Best online sources for science news

There’s never been a better time to get up to speed on news of the latest science developments as science reporting has become increasingly mainstream, mainly because of all the exciting science that’s happening these days. Here are some great resources:

Conventional news sources

Many of the places you’d expect to find news have special science desks – good ones are the BBC News Science & Environment page, New Yorker’s Science & Tech section and Huffington Post Science.

Science-specific sites

There are many of these, providing constantly updated coverage of all the news in science. Get started with sites like Science Daily, which focuses on research news, New Scientist, geared more to the general population, and of course Popular Science.


Science podcasts offer a really great source of news in a whole range of fascinating subjects from astrophysics to neuroscience, often with a huge dose of humour in the mix. Try Star Talk Radio, You Are Not So Smart, and This Week in Science.

With websites like these to explore, as well as the host of fantastic science social media accounts you’ll find on Twitter, Facebook and Google+, you can stay abreast with all the marvellous new wonders of the universe being discovered in our fascinating age.

The Modern Scientific Method

The modern scientific method is the building block on which so much of modern world has been constructed. All the massive advances in computer science and communication technology that we have witnessed in the last few decades can be directly attributed to the use of the scientific method.

Some would argue that the formulation of the modern scientific method is one of humanity’s greatest ever inventions; with it providing the key that unlocked so many more doors of progress, in a huge variety of fields, from biology and medicine, to quantum physics and space travel.

As to who invented the modern scientific method, ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle certainly has a strong claim. While he and other Greek proto-scientists certainly contributed to the development of the method, particularly in their use of observation and measurement, their initial forays into science tend to lack the structure and precision of modern science.

It would be a fairer assessment to say that much modern scientific method was first formulated by scholars in the medieval Muslim world. Between the 10th and the 14th centuries CE, scholars in the Islamic countries of the world first began to identify and use the fundamentals of modern scientific method.

These fundamentals centre on seven basic principles, which shape the work of scientists today. These are:

  1. Making an observation of a phenomenon of the natural world.
  2. Making a clear statement of a definite problem.
  3. Formulating a sound hypothesis.
  4. Testing the ideas behind the hypothesis through properly designed experiments.
  5. Recording, assessing and analysing the results of those experiments.
  6. Interpreting and presenting the data of those experiments in a coherent and scientifically sound way.
  7. Finally, publishing the findings of this process of observation, experimentation and analysis.

These look like an uncomplicated set of steps, but their simple nature is deceptive. These seven stages have formed the basis for the bast majority of successful experiments, which in turn has led to huge breakthroughs in every area of human life.

Whether you enjoy drinking soda pop, use an asthma inhaler, or drive a car, all the technology that you are enjoying can be traced to someone, somewhere, using the scientific method.

Breakthroughs in stem cell research

Stem cell research is one of the areas at the very cutting edge of scientific developments in health. The use of stem cells – which are undifferentiated cells that can go on to become specialised cells – means researchers are able to manipulate and guide the development of the tissue of the cells to alleviate health problems. The science of stem cell research is constantly evolving and providing new remedies all the time. These are some of the significant recent breakthroughs.


Researchers at Harvard University have used stem cells to engineer insulin-producing cells. This result could mean that, in the future, such cells could be transplanted into people suffering type-1 diabetes to alleviate their symptoms. Type-1 diabetes is the most common form of the disease in children, so this breakthrough offers real hope for future generations of potential sufferers from the disease – which is likely to be a key disease in coming decades as rates of obesity – a major contributing factor to the development of diabetes – grow.


Scientists at Swedish company Biolamina have developed a product, laminin that is beneficial to other researchers in the stem cell field – a matrix that provides an environment for the cultivation of augmented stem cells. The feeder- and xeno-free system allows all types of cell, all except placenta and embryo cells, to be cultured uninhibited.


Work at Northwestern University outside Chicago has used stem cells to make human brain cells. This has the potential not only for future transplantation into sufferers of Alzheimer’s and other degenerative brain conditions, but also, in the shorter term, to provide material with which to test alleviating drugs for the condition.


In Australia, at the University of Queensland, scientists have recently perfected the method to produce adult stem cells that can be utilised to repair bone. It offers the potential to replace the harvesting of bone marrow to treat skeletal conditions, a procedure that is very invasive. Transplanting such stem cells would negate the need for the procedure, and allow for a more accurate match of cells to the patient’s condition.


At the Riken Center for Developmental Biology in Japan, scientists have recently used stem cells for mouse embryos to create a retina. This is a very complex form of stem cell manipulation as the retina is, in essence, in three dimensions, and could, in time, offer the possibility of retina replacement in humans suffering blindness and other ocular conditions.

The Biggest Modern Breakthroughs in Medical Research

The history of medicine reaches as far back as the ancient period, yet just a few major discoveries stand out in the public’s mind. From the first heart transplant through to the discovery of antibiotics, medicine has had a lot to offer over the years. While older discoveries are certainly tantalising, there are modern versions that have a lot to offer too.

The HPV Vaccine

As one of the most aggressive female cancers, cervical cancer kills millions of women each year. While vaccine therapies have been explored for decades in relation to cancer, finding one that works has proven to be a challenge for scientists. Today, girls and women aged between 13 and 26 can access a preventative vaccine that significantly reduces their risk of HPV. Not only will this benefit women in the developed world, access in the developing world can significantly enhance women’s health there.

Fecal Transplants

On the face of things, fecal transplants may sound a little gross. However, when it comes to tackling some of the world’s most stubborn bacteria, they can save lives. Clostridium difficile is a violent pathogen that primarily causes infections in a healthcare setting. Thanks to its biological makeup, it’s incredibly hard to tackle. Today, patients can receive fecal transplants that have a 90 percent cure rate, allowing them to get back to good health.

The Use of Maggots to Battle MRSA

If you’ve ever worked in healthcare, you’ll already know how MRSA strikes fear in the hearts of clinicians and patients alike. While antibiotics have acted as life savers during the 20th century, overuse has led to resistance amongst certain bacteria. Researchers at Swansea University in the UK have taken medicine back to basics by using maggots as a form of wound therapy. When maggots are applied to wounds, they secrete a substance patented as ‘Seraticin’, which is antibacterial, antifungal, and too overpowering for MRSA to resist. Fortunately for squeamish patients, researchers are now working towards bottling Seraticin so it can be used without maggots being present.

Long Lasting Contraceptive Microchips

Until 2014, the longest acting contraceptive was the copper IUD, which can give women an impressive chance of staying pregnancy free for 10 years. After more than a decade of scientific development, it looks as though the contraceptive microchip is ready to take the copper IUD’s crown. Not only does it release 30mg of levonorgestrel on a daily basis, it’s possible to turn it on and off at will. As women return to their fertile potential almost immediately after stopping the hormones, it offers contraceptive flexibility that might remain unparalleled for some time now.

HIV Cocktails

After gripping the world with fear in the 1980s and 1990s, HIV is now a condition that can be relatively well controlled. In the last year, scientists have pin pointed combinations of antiretroviral drugs that help patients fight off side-effects, reach their life expectancy, and reduce the risk of spread. Compared to the decade HIV first became evident, which saw slow and painful deaths, this is astounding progress.

With science moving at a rapid pace, the world is sure to see further breakthroughs throughout the 21st century.